Reflections on 1 Corinthians 9 and 10


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Reflections on 1 Corinthians 9 and 10
By A. J. Fecko - 27 Dec 2011

Here are some additional thoughts on the Greek term makellon.

The precise background and significance of Gk. makellon (1 Cor. 10:25; RSV "meat market") are uncertain. Both J. Schneider (TDNT, IV, 370) and MM (p. 336) noted a possible connection with Heb. mikla, "enclosure"; Bauer (rev., p. 487) and H. Conzelmann (1 Corinthians [Eng. tr., Hermeneia, 1975], p. 176) agreed with Schneider that Gk. makellon is not a loanword from Lat. macellum (contra F. Bruce, 1 and 2 Corinthians [New Century Bible Comm., 1971; repr. 1981], p. 98). At Corinth H. J. Cadbury (JBL, 53 [1934], 134-141) found a fragmentary Latin inscription (1st cent. A.D.) that mentions the macellum. Some evidence suggests that this macellum was a general market-place selling fish, fruit, and bread as well as meat; thus the NAB's "market" is perhaps a more accurate translation of Gk. makellon. This rendering does not change the point that Paul made (1 Cor. 10:25), as Conzelmann noted, "since the principle of freedom is upheld." Under "Market" in "The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia" Geoffrey William Bromiley 1986.   In addition, two inscriptions of Antonine date attest—under the general supervision of the agoranomos —a mukhos, which here seems to have the sense of ‘granary’ (App.I, 17); this need not necessarily have been a building of Roman date, but it is tempting to think that it was, since the plentiful evidence for civic organization of the grain supply at Sparta belongs no earlier than the second century (see chapter 11). 8 The same inscriptions mention a Spartan makellon (App.I, 16), a Greek loan-word from Latin signifying a macellum or alimentary market. This typically Roman amenity, which by the second century had acquired a characteristic architectural form, based on an open court framed by shop-units, is encountered elsewhere in Achaia from the reign of Augustus onwards. That Sparta’s makellon was some-what older is implied by the attempt of the Roman antiquary Varro,writing in the mid-first century BC, to link the etymology of the Latin macellum with the usage of the Spartans, who in his day—so he claimed— ‘still’ employed the word makellon in the particular sense of a vegetable-market ( Ling.Lat.v. 146–7). This etymology is probably a fantasy, owing much to the larger tendency in Greek and Roman scholarship of the Late Republic to laconize the origins of Roman customs; as de Ruyt saw, the linguistic influence is more likely to have gone in the reverse direction. Varro’s story, however, does suggest that the word makellon was already applied by the mid-first century BC to an alimentary market at Sparta, although its relationship to the Antonine makellon is not entirely clear. Hellenistic and Roman Sparta A tale of two cities Second edition Paul Cartledge and Antony Spawforth, Chapter six Sparta from Achaea to Rome (188–146 BC))  

As we descended down the hill from the Palatine hill there were a row of what appeared to be shops against the hill. Some have suggested this was the old fish market. Later, more formal shopping areas called macella were established. There are only three macella buildings attested for Rome in the classical literary sources. The first, and best documented, was built by Marcus Fulvius Nobilior when he was Censor in 179 BC. Livy7 records that he contracted to build a Fish Market (Forum Piscatorium) “with shops around it which he sold for private use”. Fulvius also constructed a basilica This later came to be known as the Basilica Aemilia, the name by which it is called even today. The Macellum is thought to have been to the north of the basilica. Varro, in quite a rambling and odd section of On the Latin Language,3 says that the ‘old’ macellum had been the Vegetable Market, the Forum Holitorium. Plautus,supported by Livy5, however, has the macellum situated in the northeast part of the forum. Livy uses macellum and forum piscatorium interchangeably, as does Plautus, indicating that they were one and the same, but giving an indication of what was sold there. Some of the stalls look deep enough that thew owners may have lived there. Various named “forums have been identified: The Forum Boarium, dedicated to the commerce of cattle, between the Palatine Hill and the river Tiber, The Forum Holitorium, dedicated to the commerce of herbs and vegetables, between the Capitoline Hill and the Servian walls, The Forum Piscarium, dedicated to the commerce of fish, between the Capitoline hill and the Tiber, in the area of the current Roman Ghetto, The Forum Suarium, dedicated to the commerce of pork, near the barracks of the cohortes urbanae in the northern part of the campus Martius, The Forum Vinarium, dedicated to the commerce of wine, in the area now of the "quartiere" Testaccio, between Aventine Hill and the Tiber. Other markets were known but remain unidentifiable due to a lack of precise information on the function of the sites. Among these, the Forum cuppedinis, was known as a general market for many goods. Travel to Eat - The Roman Forum.  

Excavation works have brought to light significant archaeological finds of the Roman Empire: the macellum which is an ancient Roman indoor market building that sold mostly provisions (especially fruits and vegetables), remains of buildings such as bath Houses, a paleochristian Basilica of the age of Emperor Justinian the Great and at last a necropolis that hosts several monuments and funerary enclosures.
Castelli D'irpinia - Irpinia Castles - SCHLöSSER VON IRPINIEN